if you are thinking about starting fish farming as an agribusiness, you need to consider some important factors that may affect the success and profitability of the fish farming business. When siting a fish farm, the following are among the major considerations one should take into account:
Availability of suitable land with a reliable source of water and good climatic history :e.g. land with no history of flood.
Accessibility to the Site for the supply of inputs and for taking the product to the market: Accessibility and distances from one’s sources of inputs as well as to the market affect transporting costs. Being close to the market and sources of supply reduces one’s transport costs and can make a difference on profit margins.
Market availability and accessibility: If one is retailing directly from the farm, for example, it is much better to have the farm located as close to the market as possible. If, on the other hand, one intends to do bulk sales once in a while, then the farm can be further away from the market as you would be transporting and delivering large amounts to one destination probably once a week or month. Also, bear in mind that fish is a highly perishable commodity when fresh. If one is to supply fresh fish and does not have facilities for live transportation or holding fish alive, invest in this equipment. If the market requires smoked products, the farm would take into account easy access to the correct type of firewood and ability to process and smoke large amounts of fish in that environment.
Other land uses in the vicinity: All fish farmers should take note of what sort of activities going on in their surroundings because of their potential impact on your production and product quality. Care should especially be given to activities that are likely to affect the quality and volume of water to the farm. For example, it is not recommended to site a fish farm where the effluent from factories enters your water source, as most probably the effluent is likely to have a negative effect on the quality of water for fish production.
Utilities: Does the production technology you intend to adopt (e.g.for storage of fish) require that you need power? If it does, then the farm should be in a location easily accessible to power.
Roads and other Transport Networks: These influence accessibility and costs of getting to the farm.
Social Aspects: For example, it would not be wise to set-up a commercial smokery in the middle of a residential area as your neighbors might complain.