The objective of fish farming is to produce fish to supply markets at a competitive price and make profits. The market is, therefore, the driving force for fish farming. The key parameters that determine the levels of production and success in fish farming are water quality, feed quality and stock quality.
Pond Management: This involves all the various management practices directed towards ensuring optimum fish production and general success of fish farm business. Fish growth rate and yield from fish pond can be greatly increased through emphasizing adequate management techniques, steps or procedures that would enhance maximum productivity. This necessarily involves manipulating a complex of interacting biological, physical, chemical, and environmental factors that promote high stocking rate, growth rate, survival rate, good pond structure and water quality.
Stock Quality: stocking normally takes place after pond construction and preparation and is the means of introducing an adequate number of selected fish species of proper size into the ponds for culture.
• Be careful to stock only known species, and beware of releasing unknown or undesirable fish into the pond
• Stock only healthy and disease free fingerlings/Juvenile
• Stock fish based on targeted harvest size and the pond’s carrying capacity.
Feed Quality and Quantity: fish growth and yields depend solely on what the fishes are been fed with. The following points are to be noted:
• Feed your fishes to shorten the production cycle and to maximize profit
• Avoid prolonged storage of feeds to avoid physical losses and nutrient deterioration.
• Feed fish twice daily at specific times (morning & evening) at specific feeding spots, and by gradual broadcasting.
• Avoid overfeeding or application of excess feed to prevent fouling and pollution of water.
• Monitor growth performance of fish by visual observation during feeding.
Water quality: The quality of water used for fish pond is one of the significant factors affecting fish yield. for optimum performance of fish good quality must be provided and it must neither be too acidic or alkaline, contain enough dissolved oxygen, not be muddy or turbid, not have offensive color/odour, be of suitable temperature, salinity , be free from pathogens as well as pollutants. interactions between the water, fish, soil and other organisms during the production cycle imposes stress on the fish population. It is therefore very important for the fish farmer to maintain good water quality desirable for fish farming.
Market: The market is the driving force for commercial fish farming. Before deciding to invest in fish farming, one must have identified a potential market to which the fish produced can be sold profitably. This is because the market influences the farm-gate price of the fish produced, what quantities one is able to sell at a time and how frequently sales can be done. Consequently, it is the target market that determines the levels of one’s investment in fish farming, the species to grow, size of harvest and even the size of the pond.
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